Frequency And Outcome of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children Having Type I Diabetes: A Retrospective Comparative Cross-Sectional Study
Aim: To determine the frequency and outcome of diabetic ketoacidosis in children having type I diabetes
Study design: A retrospective comparative cross-sectional study
Place and Duration: This study was conducted at National Institute of Child Health Karachi, Pakistan from January 2020 to January 2021.
Methodology: DKA was characterized when the blood glucose level was more than 200 mg/dL, pH of venous blood was less than 7.3 or bicarbonate was less than 15 mmol/L, and ketonuria was present. The children who were only suffering from hyperglycemia were excluded from the study. All the subjects were divided into two groups, group I had individuals who were newly diagnosed with type I diabetes whereas group II had children who had established diabetes and were using insulin for treatment purposes. The demographic data and laboratory investigations were reviewed. Symptom duration, recovery time, and complications were also recorded.
Results: A total of 117 patients were included in this study, out of which 50 patients had established diabetes, and 67 were newly diagnosed with diabetes. The most common symptoms present were respiratory distress and vomiting along with polydipsia, nocturia, and polyuria. Similarly, the most common complications were hypoglycemia, followed by hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hyperkalemia.
Conclusion: In this study, it is suggested that the majority of children who have recently been diagnosed with diabetes often develop DKA. However, there were no incidences of mortality occurred due to DKA and no cases of renal failure or cerebral edema were observed during the treatment.